Background associated with Academic Technology

There is no written evidence that may tell us just who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a complex and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed depending on the necessity and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing methods to those problems associated with all areas of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is in conjunction with the utilization of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The definition of educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The next stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Utilization of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken when it comes to these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The next stage of educational technology is associated with the development of mass media which generated ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) useful for education since 1950s also became popular in this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. Something of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest idea of educational technology is influenced by the idea of system engineering or system approach which centers around language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the utilization of the computer in instruction. Based on it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning when it comes to specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology through the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the definition of, may be traced back once again to the full time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of varied handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were a few of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate in one place to a different throughout the Ocean, by that they developed their first informal education of understanding of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were created from a number of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which is often considered as the very first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in various museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are a few of the evidences in favour of the cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the look of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of the choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the data of iron smelting technology to lessen the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
Based on Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology may be traced back once again to the full time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, you can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture that have been also supported by amount of investigations and evidences. The heightened the culture, the more technical became the technology of instruction built to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an informed society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives generated diverse technologies of instruction.

The maximum advances in technology and engineering was included with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies on earth to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an earlier Bronze Age civilization that was situated in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India along with some the main civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost section of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least appears to be or a pictographic script. The script seems to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from directly to left. All the writing was available on seals and sealings that have been probably found in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the data of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the very first on earth to develop something of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists unearthed that the Indus script’s pattern is closer compared to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis so it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

Based on the Chinese Civilization, a few of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one time one of many longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was composed of pictures of the actual things such as birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was composed of above 500 hieroglyphs which are called hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs that have been discovered and rescued latter on offers the evidence of existence of numerous kinds of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process that was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing way to obtain rags, this generated the production of cheap paper, that was a perfect element in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing data capture systems press was a perfect developmental element in the real history of educational technology to convey the instruction depending on the necessity of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things such as the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It had been restricted to just one text book with several illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The season 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a powerful impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the correct sequencing of material for every person learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a broad purpose computing device laid the inspiration of the modern computer and in 1943, the very first computing machine depending on hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in that your computer functions essentially as a tutor along with the Talking Type writer was produced by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly found in education in schools, colleges and universities.

At first of the 19th century, there have been noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace for making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there have been regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application form of the data produced from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of accomplishing so.

Although the very first practical usage of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television started to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is useful for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the very first time. It will be cared that in 1960, consequently of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the start of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it’s reached England, Europe and India.

At that time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there clearly was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and only a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

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